Journal of Transport & Health Volume 2, Issue 2, June 2015

Inside Front Cover

The impacts of national and local government actions on active travel
Jennifer S. Mindell

Editorial: Themed section on the geographies of active travel
Seraphim Alvanides

Further examinations of mobility in later life and improving health and wellbeing
Charles Musselwhite


Research is needed to examine how to improve mobility in later life. Research in this section of the special issue suggests that pet ownership, proximity to amenities and culture are associated with older people walking more. Two popular emerging technologies are examined including, mobility scooters and e-bikes and the potential for them to enable mobility, along with barriers to use are included.

With regards to driving, there is further evidence that self-regulation planning and implementation intentions may help older drivers achieve their mobility goals and promote safer driving across the lifecourse. In addition, to help older people stay on the roads, support from medical experts is welcomed, though evidence here suggests medical professionals are not always confident to supply it.

In conclusion, there is a need to look at the wider relationship between mobility, ageing and health embracing a transdisciplinary and intergenerational approach.

Social inequalities in transport: Going beyond the evidence
Carme Borrell

The development of policy-relevant transport indicators to monitor health behaviours and outcomes
Hannah Badland, Suzanne Mavoa, Karen Villanueva, Rebecca Roberts, Melanie Davern, Billie Giles-Corti


  • Transport spatial indicators are needed to monitor health and inform planning
  • Spatial indicators can compare of health outcomes with area-level transport variations
  • There is potential to up-scale the most predictive indicators to national measures

Linking transport, health and sustainability: Better data sets for better policy-making
Clemence Cavoli, Nicola Christie, Jennifer Mindell, Helena Titheridge


  • Gaps in national datasets were identified, which limit research and policy making.
  • A need for further datasets linking transport, health and sustainability was found.
  • The need for new data in the field of active travel and health was highlighted.
  • Suggested solutions include applying data fusion to existing datasets.

Air pollution and health – The views of policy makers, planners, public and private sector on barriers and incentives for change
Jackie Hyland, Peter Donnelly


  • Traffic volume and urban air quality has not improved in recent years.
  • There is a disconnect between planning and development priorities.
  • Vehicular transport is still the most efficient and cost effective option.
  • Public understanding of the links between air pollution and health is limited.
  • Real time air pollution and health impact information should be made available.

Health and transportation: Small scale area association
Mehran Fasihozaman Langerudi, Mohammadian Abolfazl (Kouros), P.S. Sriraj


  • A methodology is developed to disaggregate county-level health data.
  • We have proposed built environment-related individual health condition models.
  • Iterative Proportional Fitting (IPF) approach can be used to disaggregate different data sources.

Bikeshare’s impact on active travel: Evidence from the United States, Great Britain, and Australia
Elliot Fishman, Simon Washington, Narelle Haworth


  • Estimates changes in active transport levels due to bikeshare.
  • Multi-city analysis using trip data and transfers from previously used mode to bikeshare.
  • Bikeshare reduces physical activity when it replaces walking.
  • Overall, bikeshare increases levels of active travel.
  • Encouraging a shift from sedentary modes to bikeshare enhances health contribution.

Changes in travel to school patterns among children and adolescents in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil, 1997–2007
Thiago Hérick de Sá, Leandro Martin Totaro Garcia, Grégore Iven Mielke, Fabiana Maluf Rabacow, Leandro Fórnias Machado de Rezende


  • Use of active and public transport in school travel declined between 1997 and 2007.
  • Use and time of private transport in school travel increased in the same period.
  • Changes were more pronounced among children (6–11 years old).
  • Policies that encourage active and safe transport to school are needed.

How actively do children travel to their pre-school setting?
Liz Oxford, Jon Pollock


  • Parents completed a questionnaire at four pre-schools on travel arrangements.
  • Prevalence of children’s active travel varied at each pre-school.
  • Children who lived nearer the pre-school were more likely to travel actively.
  • Distance to pre-school, weather and commitments independently predicted active travel.

Don’t learn safety by accident: A survey of child safety restraint usage among drivers in Dansoman, Accra
Enoch F. Sam


  • The study revealed low child restraints use among drivers in Dansoman, Accra.
  • Children in new vehicles are more likely to be restrained.
  • Children seated in the back seat are more likely to be unrestrained.
  • Children are more likely to be unrestrained where there are other occupants.

Rural–urban differences in health care provider child passenger safety anticipatory guidance provision
Andrea L. Huseth-Zosel, Megan Orr


  • Health care provider (HCP) child passenger safety (CPS) advice provision was gaged.
  • HCPs in several upper Midwest states were surveyed about CPS advice provision.
  • Rural HCPs were less likely than urban HCPs to provide CPS counseling to parents.
  • Rural/urban differences exist in HCP confidence in ability to provide CPS counseling.

Stress, adrenaline, and fatigue contributing to at-fault collision risk: Quantitative and qualitative measures of driving after gambling
Alissa M. Greer, Scott Macdonald, Robert E. Mann


  • The relationship between gambling and collisions was examined.
  • Adverse gambling effects on driving significantly increased lifetime “at fault” collisions.
  • Major mechanisms from gambling were identified as potential risk factors for collisions, including emotional stress and fatigue.

Epidemiology and spatial examination of bicycle-motor vehicle crashes in Iowa, 2001–2011
Cara J. Hamann, Corinne Peek-Asa, Charles F. Lynch, Marizen Ramirez, Paul Hanley


  • BMV crash locations vary by person, crash, and environmental factors.
  • Rural BMV crashes are more common at non-intersections than intersections.
  • Child bicyclists (<10) are more likely to be in non-intersection BMV crashes.
  • Iowa BMV crashes occur more frequently in low income and education areas.
  • Iowa BMV crash characteristics are similar to those in densely populated U.S. areas.

Risk factors for cycling accident related injury: The UK Cycling for Health Survey
Milo A. Hollingworth, Alice J.L. Harper, Mark Hamer


  • Cycling is increasing in popularity.
  • Injuries related to cycling accidents have increased.
  • The major risk factor for a cycling accident was weekly cycling distance.
  • Nearly half of all cycling injuries required medical attention.

Interactions between psychological and environmental characteristics and their impacts on walking
Yong Yang


Due to walking׳s benefits to physical and mental health as well as to environmental and economic sustainability, numerous studies have examined psychological and environmental characteristics on their impacts on walking. However, understanding of how the interactions between psychological and environmental characteristics influence walking remains limited. Recently, both competitive mechanism and synergetic mechanism have been proposed, and a number of empirical studies have examined the interactions between psychological and environmental characteristics, but the results were inconsistent.

We reviewed 11 recent studies and discussed their difference in terms of studies population, outcomes, environmental characteristics, and psychological characteristics. We propose a framework that integrate both mechanisms and provides an explanation to the inconsistency. More important, the framework may stimulate further empirical researches and provide implications for policy intervention to promote walking.

 Sociospatial patterning of the use of new transport infrastructure: Walking, cycling and bus travel on the Cambridgeshire guided busway
Eva Heinen, Jenna Panter, Alice Dalton, Andy Jones, David Ogilvie


  • New infrastructure may promote active travel and thereby contribute to health gain.
  • A new guided busway and service path attracted walkers, cyclists and bus users.
  • Use was determined by residential proximity to the intervention.
  • Proximity was a stronger predictor of use for cycling than for walking or bus use.
  • The effect of proximity was stronger in the population living outside urban areas.

Choice of commuting mode among employees: Do home neighborhood environment, worksite neighborhood environment, and worksite policy and supports matter?
Lin Yang, J. Aaron Hipp, Deepti Adlakha, Christine M. Marx, Rachel G. Tabak, Ross C. Brownson


  • 11.1% of employed Missourians commute to work via active commuting.
  • A transit stop within 15 minutes of home increases public transit commuting.
  • Worksite incentives to use public transit significantly increase use.
  • Employees actively commute when they live near worksites with cycling facilities.
  • Low cost recreation facilities near worksites are associated with active commuting.

Are GIS-modelled routes a useful proxy for the actual routes followed by commuters?
Alice M. Dalton, Andrew P. Jones, Jenna Panter, David Ogilvie


  • 276 GPS-tracked commute trips from a free-living sample of adults were analysed.
  • GPS routes were compared with GIS-modelled shortest routes.
  • GIS may be acceptable for distance estimation for active commuting.
  • GPS should be used to obtain accurate estimates of environmental contexts.
  • Method chosen will likely influence conclusions on health implications of commuting.

Children׳s experiences: Enjoyment and fun as additional encouragement for walking to school
Vivian Romero


  • Children are active creators of their travel experiences and such experiences are worthy of study.
  • Walking to school embeds developmental capabilities when viewed as a fun experience.
  • Certain neighbourhood attributes contribute to sensory, playful, autonomous and social experiences as children walk.

Where does bicycling for health happen? Analysing volunteered geographic information through place and plexus
Greg P. Griffin, Junfeng Jiao


  • Crowdsourcing active transport volumes provide larger datasets than previously available.
  • Bicycling for fitness is positively associated with steep terrain; whereas utilitarian bicycle trips avoid steep slopes.
  • Geographically weighted regression improved model fit by controlling for spatial autocorrelation.
  • Both place-based and roadway network variables are important considerations for understanding the geography of bicycling.

Associations between the objective and perceived built environment and bicycling for transportation
Liang Ma, Jennifer Dill


  • Different factors are associated with bicycling propensity and bicycling frequency.
  • The perceived and objective environments have different associations with bicycling.
  • Interventions to improve both actual environment and perceptions are necessary.
  • Interventions to encourage positive attitudes on bicycling are necessary.

Travel behavior of low income older adults and implementation of an accessibility calculator

Md Moniruzzaman, Anna Chudyk, Antonio Páez, Meghan Winters, Joanie Sims-Gould, Heather McKay


  • Travel behavior of lower income older adults was investigated.
  • Multilevel model was used to investigate trip distance behavior.
  • Interaction of dog ownership and walking had a positive association with trip length.
  • Web-based application was implemented to calculate accessibility score (A-score).
  • A-score along with surrounding opportunity landscape determines walkability.

The impact of mobility scooters on their users. Does their usage help or hinder?:A state of the art review
Roselle Thoreau


  • Research literature surrounding mobility scooters is sparse.
  • Scooter users feel their scooter has a positive impact on their life.
  • Scooter training is seen as important but this does not always occur.
  • The impacts of scooter use on health, in the short term, are not detrimental.
  • The long-term links between scooter usage and physical functionality is unclear.

Extending life on the bike: Electric bike use by older Australians
Marilyn Johnson, Geoff Rose


  • An online survey of older electric bike riders in Australia.
  • Majority of electric bike owners rode weekly (88.0%) including daily riders (34.3%).
  • Infrequent adult pedal cyclists used their e-bike frequently for all trip types.
  • Encouraging e-bikes will help older people make active transport choices for longer.
  • We recommend age exceptions to permit cycling on footpaths from 65 years.

General practitioner attitudes and practices in medical fitness to drive in Ireland

Amila Kahvedžić, Regina McFadden, Gerry Cummins, David Carr, Desmond O’Neil


  • We investigated attitudes, resources and practices towards medical fitness to drive.
  • We surveyed Irish family doctors by questionnaire.
  • A majority was confident or very confident in assessing medical fitness to drive.
  • A majority expressed ambivalence about primary responsibility for such assessments.
  • There were high levels of awareness of supporting literature on driving and health.

An intervention encouraging planned self-regulation and goal setting in drivers across the lifespan: Testing an extended theory of planned behaviour
Holly Gwyther, Carol Holland


  • Planned driving self-regulation may be more adaptive than avoidance strategies.
  • A theory of planned behaviour (TPB) intervention was conducted in drivers (18–83 years).
  • The intervention did not result in change to TPB components addressed.
  • 93% of intervention participants achieved their first goal to extend their driving safely.
  • Variance in goal achievement was predicted by self-regulation indices and TPB constructs.

Age-friendly mobilities: A transdisciplinary and intergenerational perspective
Lesley Murray


  • Uses WHO Age-friendly policy to reveal a series of questions about age-friendliness.
  • Argues older people’s mobilities are dependent on the mobilities of people of all ages.
  • Contends that this issue benefits from transdisciplinary and intergenerational perspectives.

Bus use in a developing world city: Implications for the health and well-being of older passengers
Carlos Aceves-González, Sharon Cook, Andrew May


  • Accessible public transport is important for a healthy and active older population.
  • Driver behaviour and poor bus design present considerable issues for older passengers.
  • There are perceived and actual barriers relating to safety, usability and comfort.
  • Good public transport design must consider the whole door-to-door journey.
  • Focus groups and passenger observations provide highly complementary data.
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